• Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals 1824-1900: An online version of the 1962-1989 printed Wellesley Index, maintained by Proquest. This subscription-based service provides information on articles in 45 Victorian era periodicals. Login required. See and

  • The Curran Index: Originally a supplement to the Wellesley Index, but in the recent years it contains a wider range of publications. It is supported by the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals.

  • Quarterly Review: The Quarterly Review Archive, edited by Jonathan Cutmore, and published as part of the Romantic Circles website [an index of articles published in the Quarterly Review from 1809-1824].

  • Athenaeum: The Athenaeum Projects, maintained by the Centre for Interactive Systems Research, City University of London [an index of book reviews published in the Athenaeum between 1828 and 1871].

  • Gentleman’s Magazine: Attributions of authorship in Gentleman’s Magazine by Emily Lorraine de Montluzin, published by the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia [covering from 1731 to 1868].

  • The Victoria Research Web: A guide to research resources for the study of 19th-century Britain. For 15 years this site has been the primary home of the Curran Index.

  • Research Society for Victorian Periodicals: An international association of scholars dedicated to the exploration and study of 19th-century British periodicals, and the supporting organization for the Curran Index.

  • Romantic Circles: A scholarly website devoted to the study of Romantic period literature and culture.

  • History in the Victorian Periodical Press Online: A database containing records of accounts of history published from about 1809 to 1916 in nineteen Victorian periodicals, published under the auspices of the University of Windsor and directed by Leslie Howsam.

  • The Periodical Poetry Index: It cites poetry published in nineteenth-century periodicals.



    • Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (London: John Murray,1818)
    • Don Juan (London: John Murray, 1819)
    • Vision of Judgment (London: Hunt, 1822)

    Spanish authors/sources:
    Francisco de Quevedo, Miguel de Cervantes, Tirso de Molina, Ginés Pérez de Hita


    • Biographia Literaria (London: Rest Fenner, 1817)
    • Osorio (1797)
    • Remorse (performed in 1813)
    • Lectures on Literature (delivered 1818, 1819)
    • Christabel (1797)

    Spanish authors:
    Calderón de la Barca, Teresa de Ávila, Miguel de Cervantes, Tirso de Molina


    • Letter of Advice to a Young American (London: M. J. Godwin, 1818)

    Spanish authors:
    Miguel de Cervantes


    • “Standard Novels and Romances”. Edinburgh Review (February 1815, vol. 24, no. 48, pp. 320-388).

    Spanish authors:
    Miguel de Cervantes


    • The Abencerrage” [Tales and Historic Scenes] (London: John Murray, 1819)
    • Songs of the Cid (The New Monthly Magazine, 1822-1823)
    • The Siege of Valencia; a Dramatic Poem (London: John Murray, 1823)
    • The Forest Sanctuary (London: John Murray, 1825)
    • Ode from the Spanish of Ferdinand de Herrera (The Edinburgh Magazine and Literary Miscellany, 1822)

    Spanish authors/sources:
    Cantar de Mío Cid, Crónica del famoso cavallero Cid Ruy Diez Campeador, Romancero, Ginés Pérez de Hita, Miguel de Cervantes, José Mª Blanco White, Fernando de Herrera


    • Some Account of the Life and Work of Lope de Vega (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, 1806)
    • Some Account of the Lives and Works of Lope de Vega and Guillén de Castro (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Broen, 1817)

    Spanish authors:
    Lope de Vega, Guillén de Castro


    • “Barrenness of the Imaginative Faculty in the Productions of Modern Art”. In Last Essays of Elia (London: Edward Moxon, 1833, pp. 166-186; originally published as “On the Total Defect of the Quality of Imagination, Observable in the Works of Modern British Authors”. The Athenaeum, January, 26 January, 1833, no. 274, p.57; 2 February, 1833, no. 275, pp. 73-74)

    Spanish authors:
    Miguel de Cervantes


    • Waverley; Or, ‘Tis Sixty Years Since (Edinburgh: Archibald Constable, and John Ballantyne,1814)
    • The Antiquary (Edinburgh: Archibald Constable; London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1816)
    • The Monastery (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme; Edinburgh: Archibald Constable, and John Ballantyne, 1820)

    Spanish authors:
    Miguel de Cervantes


    • History of a Six Weeks Tour (London: Thomas Hookham, Jr. and Charles and James Ollier, 1817).
    • The Last Man (London: Henry Colburn, 1826)
    • Lives of Eminent Literary Scientific and Men: Spanish and Portuguese Lives (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman and J. Taylor, 1835-1837)

    Spanish authors:
    Calderón de la Barca, Miguel de Cervantes, Juan Boscán, Garcilaso de la Vega, Luis de León, Francisco de Quevedo, Lope de Vega, Luis de Góngora


    • History of a Six Weeks Tour (London: Thomas Hookham, Jr. and Charles and James Ollier, 1817)
    • The Cenci (London: C. and J. Ollier, 1819)
    • Prometheus Unbound (London: C. and J. Ollier, 1820)
    • “Ode to the West Wind” (Prometheus Unbound and Other Poems, London: C. and J. Ollier, 1820)
    • A Lyrical Drama (London: C. and J. Ollier, 1822)
    • “A Defence of Poetry” [1821] (Essays, Letters from Abroad, Translations and Fragments by Percy Bysshe Shelley, London: Edward Moxon, 1840)
    • Charles the First [1819-1822] (Posthumous Poems, London: John and Henry Hunt, 1824; W. M. Rossetti (ed.), The Complete Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, London: E. Moxon, 1870).

    Spanish authors:
    Calderón de la Barca, Miguel de Cervantes


    • Roderick, the Last of the Goths (Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1814)
    • Chronicle of the Cid, from the Spanish (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1808)
    • Joan of Arc (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1812)
    • Letters Written during a Short Residence in Spain and Portugal (Bristol: Joseph Cottle; London: G. G. and J. Robinson and Cadell, 1797)

    Spanish authors:
    Lope de Vega, Crónica del famoso cavallero Cid Ruy Diez Campeador, Poema de Mío Cid, Teresa de Ávila, Romancero, Tomás de Iriarte


    • The Prelude (London: E. Moxon, 1850)

    Spanish authors:
    Miguel de Cervantes


  • Almeida, Joselyn. “The Shelleys and Spain.” Spain in British Romanticism 1800-1840. Eds. Saglia, D., Haywood, I. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018: 157-73.

  • Andrews, S. Robert Southey. History, Politics, Religion. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

  • Ardila, J. A. G., ed. The Cervantean Heritage: Reception and Influence of Cervantes in Britain. London: Legenda, 2009.

  • Barrio Marco, J.M. and M. J. Crespo Allúe, eds. La huella de Cervantes y del Quijote en la cultura anglosajona, Valladolid: Sevicio de Publicaciones Universidad de Valladolid, 2007.

  • Bell, Aubrey, «Scott and Cervantes», en Sir Walter Scott Today: Some Retrospective Essays and Studies, ed. H. J. C. Grierson, Constable, Londres, 1932, pp. 69-90.

  • Burwick, Frederick. Poetic Madness and the Romantic Imagination. Penn: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1996.

  • Close, Anthony. The Romantic Approach to Don Quixote. Cambridge: CUP, 2000 (1977).

  • Cochran, P. “Quevedo: Byron’s nom de plume”.  Byron and Latin Culture: Selected Proceedings of the 37th International Byron Society Conference, ed. P. Cochran, Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013: 378-92.

  • Cutmore, J. ed., Conservatism and the Quarterly Review: A Critical Analysis. Pickering and Chatto, 2007.

  • Donahue, D. “Cervantes as a Romantic Hero and Author: Mary Shelley’s Life of Cervantes.The Cervantean Heritage: The Reception and Influence of Cervantes in Britain. Ed. Ardila, J.A.G. Leeds: Legenda, 2009.

  • Dudley, E. “Cervantes and Wordsworth: Literary History as Literature and Literature as Literary History.” Cervantes. Su obra y su mundo. Actas del I Congreso Internacional sobre Cervantes. Ed. Manuel Criado del Val, Madrid: EDI-6, 1981, 1097-1104.

  • Dumke, S. J. The Influence of Calderón and Goethe on Shelley in the Context of A. W. Schlegel’s Conception of Romantic Drama. Doctoral thesis, Durham University, 2013.

  • Egginton, W. “Cervantes, Romantic Irony and the Making of Reality”. Modern Language Notes 117.5 (2002), pp. 1040-68.

  • Finkelstein, D., ed. Print Culture and the Blackwood Tradition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.

  • Flores Moreno, Cristina and Jonatan González. “Lope de Vega en el romanticismo inglés: el caso de La hermosura de Angélica en Letters Written During a Short Residence in Spain and Portugal”. Bulletin of Spanish Studies, 2018. (forthcoming)

  • Fradejas Lebrero, J. Calderón en Europa, Madrid: Ayuntamiento de Madrid / CSIC, 1991.

  • Franzbach, M. El teatro de Calderón en Europa, Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española, 1982.

  • Fulford, Tim. “Heroic Voyages and Superstitious Natives: Southey’s Imperialist Ideology.” Studies in Travel Writing 2 (1998a): 46-64.

  • Gallagher, Noelle Dückmann. “Don Quixote and the Sentimental Reader of History in the Works of William Godwin”. Historical Writing in Britain, 1688-1830, ed. Ben Dew and Fiona Price, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 162-181.

  • García Gómez, A. M.  “Contextualización de las primeras puestas en escena de La vida es sueño (1925, 1929) en Inglaterra dentro del marco de la crítica anglo-irlandesa del siglo xix.” Teatro calderoniano sobre el tablado: Calderón y su puesta en escena. XIII Coloquio Anglogermano sobre Calderón (Florencia, 10-14 de julio de 2002), ed. M. Tietz, Stuttgart, Franz Steiner, 2003: 163-93.

  • Gaston, Patricia. «The Waverley Series and Don Quixote: Manuscripts Lost and Found», Cervantes, 11 (1991), pp. 45-59.

  • Gates, E. J. “Shelley and Calderón.” Philological Quarterly, nº 16, (1937), pp. 49–58; Gilmartin, K. Print Politics: The Press and Radical Opposition in Early Nineteenth-Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996.

  • Gilmartin, K., Print Politics: The Press and Radical Opposition in Early Nineteenth-Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996.

  • González García, Jonatan. ‘Poetic Industry and Abominable Superstition: Robert Southey on Lope de Vega.’ in Special issue “Robert Southey”, ed. Tim Fulford and Matthew Sangster. Romanticism on the Net 68 (Fall 2017), forthcoming, 2018.Haywood, I. and D. Saglia (eds.) Spain in British Romanticism, 1800-1840. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

  • González Moreno, B. “Visiones de ‘Don Quijote’ en el Romanticismo inglés.” Don Quijote por tierras extranjeras: Estudios sobre la recepción internacional de la novela cervantina, ed. H. C. Hagedorn, Cuenca: Ediciones Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 2007: 203-15.

  • Hayden, J. O. The Romantic Reviewers, 1802-1824. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969.

  • Howarth, David. The Invention of Spain. Cultural Relations between Britain and Spain, 1770-1870. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007

  • Iarocci, M. Properties of Modernity. Romantic Spain, Modern Europe, and the Legacies of Empire. Nashville: Vanderbilt UP, 2006.

  • Insausti, G. “Calderón y Shelley”, en Calderón 2000: Homenaje a Kurt Reichenberger en su 80 cumpleaños. Actas del IV Centenario del nacimiento de Calderón (Universidad de Navarra, septiembre 2000), ed. I. Arellano, Kassel: Reichenberger, 2002: 563-74.

  • Kelly, G. “The Matter of Spain in Romantic Britain”. En Haywood and Saglia (eds.), 19-35.

  • Klancher, J. P. The Making of English Reading Audiences, 1790-1832. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

  • Kumar, K. The Making of English National Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003.

  • Laspra, Alicia. “Presse, politique et poésie anglaise de la Guerre d’Indépendance (1808-1814)” La poésie, vecteur de l’information au temps de la guerre d’Espagne (1808-1814). Eds. Larriba, E., Coletes Blanco, A. Aix-en-Provence: Presses universitaires de Provence, 2017.

  • Literaturwissenschaftliches Jahrbuch im Auftrage der Görres Gesellschaft, 40 (1999), pp. 139-154.

  • Lloréns, V. “Colaboraciones de emigrados españoles en revistas inglesas” (1824-1834), Hispanic Review, vol. 19 (1951): 121-42.

  • Lloréns, V. Liberales y románticos: una emigración española en Inglaterra (1823-1834). Madrid: Castalia, 1979 (3ª ed.).

  • Madariaga, S. “Shelley and Calderón.” Shelley and Calderón and Other Essays on English and Spanish Poetry, London: Constable, 1920: 3-48.

  • Mancing, Howard, «The Quixotic Novel in British Fiction of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries», en The Cervantean Heritage: Reception and Influence of Cervantes in Britain, ed. J. A. G. Ardila, Legenda, Londres, 2009, pp. 104-117.

  • McDonald, W. U., «Scott’s Conception of Don Quixote», Midwest Review (1959), pp. 37-42.

  • Moro Martín, Alfredo. “Calderón de la Barca en la obra de Mary W. Shelley.” Cuadernos de Ilustración y Romanticismo, 21 (2015): 193-203.

  • Moro Martín, Alfredo. “Calderón en Inglaterra (siglos XVII y XIX): Historia y razones de un olvido.” La cultura española en la Europa romántica. Ed. Jose Checa Beltrán. Madrid: Visor, 2015b: 153-168.

  • Moro Martin, Alfredo. “Don Quijote y la novela historica. Consideraciones sobre la influencia cervantina en Waverley, or ’Tis Sixty Years Since (1814), de Sir Walter Scott Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America, vol. 37, no. 2, 2017, pp. 169– 201.

  • Moro Martín, Alfredo. “Everything must have a beginning, to speak in Sanchean phrase. Frankenstein (1818) de Mary Shelley como novela cervantina.” Recreaciones quijotescas y cervantinas en la narrativa. Ed. Carlos Mata Induráin. Pamplona: Eunsa, 2013: 185-194.

  • Moro Martín, Alfredo. “Extraños compañeros de viaje: Cervantes y Mary Shelley.” Anales Cervantinos, 49 (2017): 325-352.

  • Moro Martín, Alfredo. Cervantes, Sir Walter Scott and the Quixotic Satire on Erudition: Cervantean Echoes in Scott’s The Antiquary (1816)”. British Periodicals and Spanish Literature. Mapping the Romantic Canon, ed. Mª Eugenia Perojo Arronte and Cristina Flores Moreno. Berlin: Peter Lang, 2022: 147-158.

  • Moskal, Jean. “To Speak in Sanchean Phrase: Cervantes and the Politics of Mary Shelley’s History of a Six Week’s Tour.” Mary Shelley in her Times. Ed. Betty T. Bennnett and Stuart Curran. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 2000, pp. 18-35.

  • Müllenbrook, Heinz J., «Scotts Waverley als ‘Respons’ auf Cervantes’s Don Quixote»,

  • Müller, Wolfganf G. «Sir Walter Scotts Waverley und die Don Quijote-Tradition», Arcadia, 23 (1988), pp. 133-148.

  • Pardo García, Pedro J. “El Siglo de Oro del Quijote en la literatura inglesa: 1740-1840», en La Huella de Cervantes y del Quijote en la cultura anglosajona, ed. J. M. Barrio y M. J. Crespo, Universidad de Valladolid/ Centro Buendía, Valladolid, 2007, pp. 133- 158.

  • Pardo García, Pedro J. «La tradición cervantina en la novela inglesa: de Henry Fielding a William Thackeray», en Entre Cervantes y Thackeray: Sendas del Renacimiento/ Between Cervantes and Shakespeare: Trails along the Renaissance, ed. Z. L. Martínez y L. Gómez Canseco, Juan de la Cuesta, Newark, Delaware, 2006, pp. 73-111.

  • Pardo García, Pedro J. «Reino Unido. Don Quijote», en Gran Enciclopedia Cervantina, vol. IX, ed. Carlos Alvar, Castalia, Madrid, pp. 796-838.

  • Perojo Arronte, M. E. “Coleridge’s Criticism of the Don Juan Tradition.” Romanticism, Reaction and Revolution: British Views on Spain, 1814-1823. Eds. Bernard Beatty and Alicia Laspra Rodríguez. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2018b. (forthcoming)

  • Perojo Arronte, M. E. “Coleridge and Spanish Literature”. Spain in British Romanticism, 1800-1840. Eds. Haywood and Saglia, 2018a: 95-114.

  • Perojo Arronte, M. E., “Samuel Taylor Coleridge on Don Quixote”, Cervantes. Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America, 34:2 (2014): 203-18.

  • Perry, Seamus. Coleridge and the Uses of Division. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.

  • Roberts, H. “Mere Poetry and Strange Flesh: Shelley’s The Cenci and Calderón’s El Purgatorio de San Patricio,” European Romantic Review, nº 20.3 (2009): 345-66.

  • Robinson, Ch. E. “The Devil as Doppelgänger in The Deformed Transformed: The Sources and Meaning of Byron’s Unfinished Drama.” The Plays of Lord Byron: Critical Essays, ed. R. F. Gleckner and B. G. Beatty, Liverpool: Liverpool UP, 1997: 321-45.

  • Rodríguez Palomero, L. F. “Calderón, Shelley and Roy Campbell. Un apunte sobre la seducción.” Calderón de la Barca y su aportación a los valores de la cultura europea, coord. T. Albadalejo Mayordomo, Madrid: Universidad San Pablo-CEU, 2001: 117-38.

  • Sáez, A. J., and A. Moro. “Calderón en Inglaterra (siglos xvii-xix): historia y razones de un olvido.” La cultura española en la Europa Romántica, ed. J. Checa Beltrán, Madrid: Visor Libros, 2015: 153-68.

  • Saglia, Diego and I. Haywood (eds.). Spain in British Romanticism 1800-1840. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

  • Saglia, Diego. Byron and Spain: Itinerary in the Writing of Place. Lampeter and Lewiston NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1996.

  • Saglia, Diego. Poetic Castles in Spain. British Romanticism and Figurations of Iberia. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000

  • Sarmiento, E. “Wordsworth and Don Quijote.” Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 38.1 (1961): 113-119.

  • Schoenfield, M. British Periodicals and Romantic identity: the ‘literary lower empire’. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

  • Snel-Wolfe, Clara, «Evidences of Scott Indebtedness to Spanish Literature», The Romanic Review, XXIII, 4 (October-December 1932), pp. 301-311.

  • Ter Horst, Robert, «Effective Affinities: Walter Scott and Miguel de Cervantes», en Cervantes for the 21st Century/ Cervantes para el siglo XXI. Studies in the Honor of Edward Dudley, ed. F. la Rubia Prado, Juan de la Cuesta, Newark, Delaware, 2000, pp. 199-220.

  • Webb, Timmothy. The Violet in the Crucible: Shelley and Translation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976, pp 217-225.


1801 ·         May-June – War of Oranges. France and Spain invade Portugal. ·         January 1 – Great Britain and Ireland are formally joined through the Act of Union.
1802 ·         March – Treaty of Amiens. Gibraltar remains under British rule; Menorca repossessed by Spain.

·         End of first Anglo-Spanish War (1796-1802).

·         French forces occupy Santo Domingo (i.e. República Dominicana). ·         October 21 – Royal Navy defeats a French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar.
1804 ·         Beginning of second Anglo-Spanish War (1804-1808). ·         William Pitt the Younger becomes Prime Minister for the second time (1804–1806).

·         Beginning of second Anglo-Spanish War (1804-1808).

1805 ·         October 21 – Battle of Trafalgar. ·         October 21 – Battle of Trafalgar.
1806 ·         February – Francisco de Miranda’s failed attempt to invade Venezuela.

·         June 27 – A British expedition invades Buenos Aires.

·         August 12 – The British are expelled from Buenos Aires

·         William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville becomes Prime Minister (1806-1807).
1807 ·         Spain joins the Continental Blockade against Britain.

·         October 27 – Treaty of Fontainebleau between Charles IV and Napoleon.

·         February 3 – Battle of Montevideo: the British capture Montevideo.

·         July 5 – The British are defeated in their attempt to invade Buenos Aires

·         William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, becomes Prime Minister (1807-1809).

·         March 25 – Britain abolishes the slave trade.

1808 ·         Beginning of the Peninsular War (1808-1814).

·         March 17-19 – Motín de Aranjuez (Mutiny of Aranjuez).

·         March 19 – Abdication of Charles IV in favour of Ferdinand VII.

·         May 2 – Dos de Mayo Uprising.

·         June 6 – Coronation of Joseph I. Bayonne Statute approved.

·         July 16-19 – Battle of Bailén.

·         July-November – Conspiracy of the Mantuanos in Caracas: they attempt to establish a governing junta.

·         September 21 – A governing junta is established in Montevideo.

·         November 7 – Batalla de Palo Hincado (Santo Domingo): Spanish colonists defeat the French invaders

·        Beginning of the Peninsular War (1808-1814).

·         British expedition to Portugal.

·         Convention of Cintra.

·         British West Africa Squadron is formed to suppress slave trading along the West African coast.

1809 ·         January 14 – Treaty between Spain and Great Britain. British government acknowledges Ferdinand VII as King of Spain. ·         July 16 – A governing junta is established in La Paz.

·         July 27 – The junta of La Paz declares independence from Spain

·         August 10 – Ecuador declares independence from Spain.

·        January 14 – Treaty between Spain and Great Britain. British government acknowledges Ferdinand VII as King of Spain.

·         Spencer Perceval becomes Prime Minister (1809-1812).

1810 ·         September 24 – Cortes and Regency established in San Fernando, Cádiz. Opening session. ·         April 1 – The Supreme Junta of Caracas is established

·         May 18-25 – May Revolution in Argentina. Establishment of the Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata.
July – Bolívar arrives in London as a delegate of the Supreme Junta of Caracas.

·         July 20 – Protests in Santa Fe de Bogotá. The junta of Santa Fe declares independence from Spain.

·         September 16 – Cry of Dolores: the Mexican War of Independence breaks out December 6: “Decreto contra la esclavitud, las gabelas y el papel sellado” (signed in Guadalajara, Mexico) – it abolishes slavery in America.

1811 ·         February 18 – Cortes established in Cádiz.

·         April 22 – Decree lxi: Abolition of torture and duress.

·         February 27 – Cry of Asencio (Uruguay).

·         June – Insurrection of Tacna (Perú): failed attempt to gain independence.

·         July 5 – Venezuela declares independence from Spain.

·         May 14-15 – Paraguay declares independence from Spain.

·         July 30 – The Mexican independence leader Miguel Hidalgo is executed.

·         November 11 – Cartagena de Indias declares independence from Spain.

·         George IV becomes Regent as a result of George III’s insanity.

·         Luddite protesters attack industrial machinery in protest against unemployment in Nottinghamshire, Lancashire and Yorkshire.

1812 ·         March 19 – Spanish Constitution.

·         Voto de Santiago is abolished.

·         March 26 – Caracas earthquake. The city is destroyed.

·         July – End of the first Republic of Venezuela (1810-1812). Miranda is captured and sent to Spain.

·         September 24-25 – Battle of Tucumán: the patriots of the United Provinces of the River Plate defeat the royalist Spanish army.

·         Robert banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool becomes Prime Minister (1812-1827).

·         The government infiltrated the Luddite protesters with spies and sent 12,000 troops to Yorkshire in 1812 to stop further industrial violence.

·         Hampden clubs, the first major societies devoted to parliamentary reform are formed to advocate parliamentary reform.

1813 ·         The Inquisition is abolished.

·         December 11 – Abdication of Joseph Bonaparte.

·         February 3 – Battle of San Lorenzo: the patriots, led by José de San Martín, defeated the royalist army.

·         May 23 – Bolívar is proclaimed ‘libertador’.

·         June 15 – Bolívar signs the Decree of War to the Death (Decreto de Guerra a Muerte).

·         August 6 – Bolívar’s triumphally enters Caracas.

·         October 3 – Second rebellion in Tacna (Peru): the rebels are defeated on October 31.

·         November 6 – The independence of Septentrional America is declared in the Congress of Anáhuac (Mexico).

1814 ·         End of the Peninsular War (1808-1814).

·         March 24 – King Ferdinand VII returns to Spain.

·         April 12 – Manisfiesto de los Persas.

·         May 4 – Cadiz Constitution is annulled; Cortes are dissolved.

·         July – The Inquisition is reestablished.

·         September 25-26 – Liberal uprising in Pamplona led by Francisco Espoz y Mina.

·         August 3 – Cuzco Rebellion (Peru): a governing junta is established.

·         December 11 – Battle of Maturín (Venezuela): royalist victory over the republicans.

1815 ·         April 25 – All newspapers are banned except the official ones (Gazeta y El Diario).

·         September 18-19 – Liberal uprising in A Coruña led by Juan Díaz Porlier.

·         February 15 – A Spanish expedition, commanded by Pablo Morillo, sets sail for America to ‘reconquer’ the colonies.

·         March 25 – The Cuzco Rebellion is crashed by the royalist forces.

·         June 18 – Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, defeats Napoleon at Waterloo.

·         March – The Tory government of Lord Liverpool introduced the Corn Laws to protect British agriculture imposing heavy tariffs on foreign grain. They were repealed in 1846.

1816 ·         July 9 – The Congress of Tucuman declares the independence of the United Provinces of South America (formerly known as United Provinces of the River Plate).

·         March-July, December – Expedición de los Cayos: Bolívar leads an invasion of Venezuela to expel the royalists and re-establish the republic.

1817 ·         April 5 – Pronouncement of Lacy in Catalonia led by Luis de Lacy. ·         February 12 – Battle of Chacabuco (Chile): the patriots defeat the royalist army.

·         April-November – Francisco Javier Mina leads an expedition in support for the independence of Mexico.

·         November 11 – Mina is executed.

·         British legion: British volunteers are recruited to fight under Bolívar’s command for the independence of the Spanish American colonies.

·         March 10 – Working class ‘Blanketeers’ mount a march From Manchester to London to claim parliamentary reform. The marchers were dispersed by troops before they reached Stockport.

·         Death of Princess Charlotte.

1818 ·         February 12 – Chile proclaims its independence.

·         April 5 – Battle of Maipú: Chilean patriots defeat the Spanish royalists.

·         Hampden clubs are banned.

·         Queen Charlotte dies.

1819 ·         August 7 – Battle of Boyacá: Bolívar’s army defeats the royalist forces in Colombia.

·         December 17 – The republic of Gran Colombia is created (it included Venezuela and Nueva Granada).

·         August 16 – Peterloo Massacre: fifteen people died and hundreds were injured when the cavalry charged the crowd gathered at St Peter’s Fields, Manchester, to demand parliamentary reform and protest against high food prices.
1820 ·         Beginning of Trienio Liberal (Liberal Triennium) (1820-1823).

·         January 1 – Rafael de Riego and Antonio Quiroga’s revolt againts Ferdinand VII in Seville.

·         March 7 – The King swears to the Constitution.

·         March 10 – Spanish Constitution is restored. Liberal government is appointed.

·         June – Cortes call for the dissolution of the ‘national army’.

·         February 6 – Capture of Valdivia: Chilean forces, commanded by Lord Cochrane, defeat the royalists and capture Valdivia.

·         October 9 – Guayaquil proclaims independence from Spain.

·         November 26 – Armisticio de Santa Ana: armistice signed by Spain and Gran Colombia.

·         January 29 – George III dies and is succeeded by George IV. The new king’s scandalous private life made him unpopular. Nevertheless, as a supporter of the arts, he set new standards of taste, particularly noticeable in some of his residences such as Carlton House and Brighton Pavilion.
1821 ·         March 1 – ‘Discurso de la coletilla’ by Ferdinand VII at the Cortes.

·         Freedom of the press established.

·         February 22 – The Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) by which Spain ceded Florida to the US takes effect.

·         May-October – Congress of Cúcuta: the constitution of the Gran Colombia is written.

·         June 24 – Battle of Carabobo: Gran Colombia defeats the royalists.

·         July 28 – San Martín proclaims the independence of Perú.

·         August 24 – Treaty of Córdoba: end of the Mexican War of Independence.

·         September 15 – Act of Independence of Central America: Guatemala (including Chiapas, Guatemala, San Salvador, Comayagua, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) declares independence from Spain.

·         September 28 – The Act of Independence of the Mexican Empire is signed.

·         November 28 – Panama declares independence from Spain and joins Gran Colombia.

·         December 1 – Santo Domingo (i.e. Dominican Republic) declares independence from Spain.

1822 ·         January 27 – Territorial division of Spain.

·         July 6-7 – Royalist revolt breaks out.
Riego wins the elections to the Cortes.

·         February 9 – Haiti invades Santo Domingo. Unification of Hispaniola.

·         August 21 – Agustín Iturbide se proclama emperador de México.

1823 ·         Election of a radical liberal government.

·         Jesuits are expelled.

·         April 7– Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis. France invades Spain.

·         Spring – Universities are closed by Royal Decree.

·         September – Fall of Cádiz; Cortes are dissolved and absolutism in restored under Ferdinand VII.
Ominous Decade begins.

·         September 7 – Riego is executed.

·         March 19 – Agustín Iturbide abdicates. End of the First Mexican Empire.

·         October – British consuls arrived in New Granada, Mexico, Chile and Argentina.

·         The British Empire annexed Burma (now also called Myanmar).
1824 ·         July 19 – Agustín de Itúrbide is executed (Mexico).

·         August 6 – Batalla de Junín (Perú): the patriots defeat the royalist forces.

·         November 22 – The Federal Republic of Central America is created (until 1856 it included Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua).

·         December 9 – Battle of Ayacucho (Perú): end of Spanish rule in South America.

1825 ·         February 2 – Great Britain and the United Provinces of the River Plate (Argentina) sign a Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation. Britain recognises the independence of Argentina.

·         July 18 – Uruguay secedes from Brazil.

·         August 6 – Provincias del Alto Perú (i.e. Bolivia) eventually gains independence from Spain.

·         Britain recognises the independence of Colombia, México and Chile.

·         September 27 – The first steam railway ran between the north towns of Stockton and Darlington.
1826 ·         December 26 – Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between Mexico and Great Britain. ·         Founding of University College London.
1827 ·         March-September – Revuelta de los agraviados (The Revolt of the Aggrieved) in Catalonia. ·         George Canning becomes Prime Minister (April-August 1827).

·         Treaty of London between Britain, France and Russia guarantees the independence of Greece.

1828 ·         June 3 – Gran Colombia- Peru War. Bolivia declares war on Peru. ·         Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington becomes Prime Minister (1828-1830).

·         Parliament repeals the Test and Corporation Acts that had banned Catholics from holding public offices and from attending Universities.

1829 ·         April – Parliament grants full emancipation to British and Irish Catholics through the Catholic Relief Act.

·         June: Robert Peel sets up the Metropolitan Police.

·         Founding of King’s College London.

1830 ·         March 29 – Pragmatic Sanction is promulgated.

·         October 10 – Isabella II of Spain is born.

·         June 4 – Antonio José de Sucre is murdered (near Pasto, Colombia).

·         December 17 – Bolívar dies.

·         June 26 – George IV dies and is succeeded by his brother William IV. The King was involved in the reform of parliamentary representation through the extension of the franchise and new electoral boundaries.

·         Charles Grey 2nd Earl Grey becomes Prime Minister (1830-1834).

·         Robert Peel founds the Metropolitan Police.

1831 ·         December – General Torrijos’s revolt, funded by British liberals.

·         May 26 – Mariana Pineda is executed.

·         October – Riots in Bristol, Nottingham, Derby and smaller towns break out after the Reform Bill was rejected by the House of Lords.

·         The Liverpool and Manchester railway is opened.

1832 ·         September – La Granja Uprising against the Pragmatic Sanction.

·         October – Francisco Cea Bermúdez becomes Prime Minister. Amnesty for émigrés.

·         February 29 – The republic of New Granada created. ·         June 4 – The Great Reform Act finally changes parliamentary representation.